What are the components of solar street lights?

2020-04-30 17:51:39
Solar street light is composed of the following parts: solar panel, solar controller, battery pack, light source, lamp post, and lamp housing. If the output power is 220V or 110V, an inverter is also required.
1. Solar panel:

The solar panel is the core part of the solar street lamp and the most valuable part of the solar street lamp. Its role is to convert the sun's radiation capacity into electrical energy or send it to a storage battery for storage. Among the many solar cells, there are three types of monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells, and amorphous silicon solar cells, which are more common and practical. In the east and west regions where the sunlight is sufficient, it is better to use polycrystalline silicon solar cells, because the production process of polycrystalline silicon solar cells is relatively simple and the price is lower than that of single crystals. In the southern region where there are many rainy days and the sunshine is not very sufficient, it is better to use monocrystalline silicon solar cells because the performance parameters of monocrystalline silicon solar cells are relatively stable. Amorphous silicon solar cells are better when there is insufficient outdoor sunlight because amorphous silicon solar cells have lower requirements for sunlight conditions.

solar street light

2. Solar controller
Regardless of the size of solar lamps, a good performance charge and discharge controller is essential. In order to prolong the service life of the battery, its charge and discharge conditions must be limited to prevent the battery from overcharging and deep charging. Where the temperature difference is large, a qualified controller should also have a temperature compensation function. At the same time, the solar controller should also have street lamp control functions, with light control and time control functions, and should have automatic load control function at night to facilitate the extension of street lamp working hours on rainy days.
3. Battery

Since the input energy of the solar photovoltaic power generation system is extremely unstable, it is generally necessary to configure a battery system to work. Generally, there are lead-acid batteries, Ni-Cd batteries, and Ni-H batteries. The selection of battery capacity generally follows the following principles: first of all, under the premise of satisfying night lighting, the energy of solar cell modules during the day should be stored as much as possible, and at the same time, it should be able to store the electrical energy that meets the needs of continuous rainy night lighting at night. The battery capacity is too small to meet the needs of night lighting. The battery is too large. On the one hand, the battery is always in a state of power loss, affecting the battery life and causing waste. The accumulator should be matched with the solar cell and electricity load (street light). A simple method can be used to determine the relationship between them. The solar cell power must be more than 4 times higher than the load power for the system to work properly. The voltage of the solar cell must exceed the working voltage of the battery by 20 ~ 30% in order to ensure that the battery is normally negatively charged. The battery capacity must be more than 6 times higher than the daily load consumption.

solar street light

4. Light source
What kind of light source is used for solar street lamps is an important indicator of whether solar lamps can be used normally. Generally, solar lamps use low-voltage energy-saving lamps, low-pressure sodium lamps, electrodeless lamps, and DLED light sources.
(1) Low-voltage energy-saving lamp: low power and high light efficiency, but the service life is 2000 hours, the low-voltage lamp tube is black, and it is generally suitable for solar lawn lamps and courtyard lamps.
(2) Low-pressure sodium lamps: low-pressure sodium lamps have high efficiency (up to 200Lm / w) but require inverters, low-pressure sodium lamps are expensive, and the entire system is built high and less used.
(3) Electrodeless lamp: low power and high light efficiency. The lamp is used under 220V (pure sine wave, frequency 50 Hz) under ordinary city power conditions, and the lifespan can reach 50,000 hours. The service life of solar lamps is greatly reduced and it is almost the same as ordinary energy-saving lamps (because solar lamps are square wave inverters) The output frequency, item position, and voltage of the solar power supply 220V cannot be compared with ordinary commercial power).
(4) LED: LED light source, long life, up to 1000000 hours, low working voltage, no inverter required, high light efficiency, domestic 50 Lm / w, imported 80 Lm / w As technology advances, the performance of LEDs will be further improved. The author believes that LED as a light source of solar street lights will be a trend.
5. Light pole and lamp housing
The height of the light pole should be determined according to the width of the road, the spacing of the lamps, and the illuminance standard of the road. According to our collection of many foreign solar lamp materials, lamp housing is between energy-saving and energy-saving. Most of them choose to save energy.